Euro standards

standards for road vehicles

Type:
Technical Option | Specific Example
Theme:
Climate & Air | Transport
Location:
Europe

View All

Summary

European emission standards for road vehicles are set in order to define the acceptable levels of exhaust emissions for new vehicles sold within the EU. Emissions are regulated for all road vehicle types and trains, and standards vary by each vehicle type. Pollutants which these standards apply to include: Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Total hydrocarbon (THC), Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC)/Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Carbon monoxide (CO), and Particulate matter (PM). The stages are typically referred to as Euro 1, Euro 2, Euro 3, Euro 4, and Euro 5 fuels for Light Duty Vehicle standards. The corresponding series of standards for Heavy Duty Vehicles use Roman numerals (i.e. Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, etc.).

The legal framework consists of a series of directives, each an amendment to the 1970 Directive 70/220/EEC. A summary list of the standards is outlined below in terms of when they come into force, what they apply to, and which EU directives provide the definition of the standard:

Euro 1 (1993):

  • For passenger cars – 91/441/EEC
  • Also for passenger cars and light trucks– 93/59/EEC

Euro 2 (1996):

  • For passenger cars – 94/12/EC (& 96/69/EC)
  • For motorcycle – 2002/51/EC (row A)– 2006/120/EC

Euro 3 (2000):

  • For any vehicle – 98/69/EC
  • For motorcycle – 2002/51/EC (row B) – 2006/120/EC

Euro 4 (2005):

  • For any vehicle – 98/69/EC (& 2002/80/EC)

Euro 5 (2008/9) and Euro 6 (2014):

  • For light passenger and commercial vehicles – 2007/715/EC

Implementation

As shown above, these standards are set out through a series of EU directives whereby progressive stages are introduced with increasingly stringent standards (see tables below for specific details of emission standards). Non-compliant vehicles cannot be sold in the EU, but new standards do not apply to vehicles already on the roads. Although no specific technology is required to meet the standards, available technology is considered when setting the standards. As of 2009, Euro V is the latest standard to be introduced, with Euro VI not expected until 2014. However, exact dates of introduction vary by vehicle category.

 

European emission standards for passenger cars (Category M*), g/km

Tier

Date CO THC NMHC NOx HC+NOx PM p***
Diesel
Euro 1† Jul 1992 2.72 (3.16) - - - 0.97 (1.13) 0.14 (0.18) -
Euro 2 Jan 1996 1 - - - 0.7 0.08 -
Euro 3 Jan 2000 0.64 - - 0.5 0.56 0.05 -
Euro 4 Jan 2005 0.5 - - 0.25 0.3 0.025 -
Euro 5 Sep 2009 0.5 - - 0.18 0.23 0.005 -
Euro 6 (future) Sep 2014 0.5 - - 0.08 0.17 0.005 -
Petrol (gasoline)
Euro 1† Jul 1992 2.72 (3.16) - - - 0.97 (1.13) - -
Euro 2 Jan 1996 2.2 - - - 0.5 - -
Euro 3 Jan 2000 2.3 0.2 - 0.15 - - -
Euro 4 Jan 2005 1 0.1 - 0.08 - - -
Euro 5 Sep 2009 1 0.1 0.068 0.06 - 0.005** -
Euro 6 (future) Sep 2014 1 0.1 0.068 0.06 - 0.005** -
* Before Euro 5, passenger vehicles > 2500kg were type approved as light commercial vehicles N1-I
** Applies only to vehicles with direct injection engines
*** A number standard is to be defined as soon as possible and at the latest upon entry into force of Euro 6
† Values in brackets are conformity of production (COP) limits

 

European emission standards for light commercial vehicles < 1305kg (Category N1-I), g/km

Tier

Date CO THC NMHC NOx HC+NOx PM p
Diesel
Euro 1 Oct 1994 2.72 - - - 0.97 0.14 -
Euro 2 Jan 1998 1 - - - 0.7 0.08 -
Euro 3 Jan 2000 0.64 - - 0.5 0.56 0.05 -
Euro 4 Jan 2005 0.5 - - 0.25 0.03 0.025 -
Euro 5 Sep 2009 0.5 - - 0.18 0.23 0.005 -
Euro 6 (future) Sep 2014 0.5 - - 0.08 0.17 0.005 -
Petrol (gasoline)
Euro 1 Oct 1994 2.72 - - - 0.97 - -
Euro 2 Jan 1998 2.2 - - - 0.5 - -
Euro 3 Jan 2000 2.3 0.2 - 0.15 - - -
Euro 4 Jan 2005 1 0.1 - 0.08 - - -
Euro 5 Sep 2009 1 0.1 0.068 0.06 - 0.005* -
Euro 6 (future) Sep 2014 1 0.1 0.068 0.06 - 0.005* -
* Applies only to vehicles with direct injection engines

 

European emission standards for light commercial vehicles 1305kg - 1760kg (Category N1-II), g/km

Tier

Date CO THC NMHC NOx HC+NOx PM p
Diesel
Euro 1 Oct 1994 5.17 - - - 1.4 0.19 -
Euro 2 Jan 1998 1.25 - - - 1 0.12 -
Euro 3 Jan 2001 0.8 - - 0.65 0.72 0.07 -
Euro 4 Jan 2006 0.63 - - 0.33 0.39 0.04 -
Euro 5 Sep 2010 0.63 - - 0.235 0.295 0.005 -
Euro 6 (future) Sep 2015 0.63 - - 0.105 0.195 0.005 -
Petrol (gasoline)
Euro 1 Oct 1994 5.17 - - - 1.4 - -
Euro 2 Jan 1998 4 - - - 0.6 - -
Euro 3 Jan 2001 4.17 0.25 - 0.18 - - -
Euro 4 Jan 2006 1.81 0.13 - 0.1 - - -
Euro 5 Sep 2010 1.81 0.13 0.09 0.075 - 0.005* -
Euro 6 (future) Sep 2015 1.81 0.13 0.09 0.075 - 0.005* -
* Applies only to vehicles with direct injection engines

 

European emission standards for light commercial vehicles > 1760kg max 3500kg (Category N1-III & N2), g/km

Tier

Date CO THC NMHC NOx HC+NOx PM p
Diesel
Euro 1 Oct 1994 6.9 - - - 1.7 0.25 -
Euro 2 Jan 1998 1.5 - - - 1.2 0.17 -
Euro 3 Jan 2001 0.95 - - 0.78 0.86 0.1 -
Euro 4 Jan 2006 0.74 - - 0.39 0.46 0.06 -
Euro 5 Sep 2010 0.74 - - 0.28 0.35 0.005 -
Euro 6 (future) Sep 2015 0.74 - - 0.125 0.215 0.005 -
Petrol (gasoline)
Euro 1 Oct 1994 6.9 - - - 1.7 - -
Euro 2 Jan 1998 5 - - - 0.7 - -
Euro 3 Jan 2001 5.22 0.29 - 0.21 - - -
Euro 4 Jan 2006 2.27 0.16 - 0.11 - - -
Euro 5 Sep 2010 2.27 0.16 0.108 0.082 - 0.005* -
Euro 6 (future) Sep 2015 2.27 0.16 0.108 0.082 - 0.005* -
* Applies only to vehicles with direct injection engines

 

EU Emission Standards for HD Diesel Engines, g/kWh (smoke in m−1)

Tier

Date Test cycle CO HC NOx PM Smoke
Euro I 1992, <85kW ECE R-49 4.5 1.1 8 0.612  
1992, >85kW 4.5 1.1 8 0.36  
Euro II Oct 1996 4 1.1 7 0.25  
Oct 1998 4 1.1 7 0.15  
Euro III
 
Oct 1999 (EEVs only) ESC & ELR 1 0.25 2 0.02 0.15
Oct 2000 ESC & ELR 2.1 0.66 5 0.1 0.8
0.13*
Euro IV Oct 2005 1.5 0.46 3.5 0.02 0.5
Euro V Oct 2008 1.5 0.46 2 0.02 0.5
Euro VI Jan 2013 1.5 0.13 0.5 0.01  
* For engines of less than 0.75 dm³ swept volume per cylinder and a rated power speed of more than 3,000 per minute. EEV is "Enhanced environmentally friendly vehicle"

 

Euro norm emissions for category N2, EDC, (2000 and up)

Standard
Date
CO
(g/kWh)
NOx
(g/kWh)
HC
(g/kWh)
PM
(g/kWh)
Euro 0 1988-1992 12.3 15.8 2.6 -
Euro I 1992-1995 4.9 9 1.23 0.4
Euro II 1995-1999 4 7 1.1 0.15
Euro III 1999-2005 2.1 5 0.66 0.1
Euro IV 2005-2008 1.5 3.5 0.46 0.02
Euro V 2008-2012 1.5 2 0.46 0.02

Impact

Generally, the Euro standards have had a very strong impact on emission reductions from the transport fleet, and have arguably been the most significant measure adopted thus far in terms of physically reducing emissions from transport. However, the impact of this measure has been countered somewhat through growth in the transport fleet and demand for travel over the last ten years. As such, though this type of technical measure has achieved significant success in terms of emissions abatement, there are potential synergies with non-technical measures that may result in further emissions reductions (i.e. through a reduction in vehicle ownership, or vehicle kilometres driven). Such measures used to encourage this may include eco driving, car pooling, modal shift policies, congestion charging, etc.

Furthermore it is important to bear in mind that for emission standards to deliver real emission reductions it is crucial that the test cycles under which the emissions have to comply as much as possible reflect normal driving situations. It was discovered that engine manufacturers had engaged in what was called 'cycle beating' to optimise emission performance during the test cycle. Thus whilst vehicles complied with emission limits during the test, emissions from typical driving conditions were much higher than expected, thus undermining the value of the standards. In one particular instance, research from two German technology institutes found that for diesel cars no 'real' NOx reductions have been achieved after 13 years of stricter standards. Even more recent evidence suggests in some cases that specific diesel vehicles are in fact net contributors to NOX emissions. However, with the exception of the specific stages which did not deliver on the expected emissions abatement levels for certain pollutants, euro standards have generally been successful in terms of reducing emissions from the road transport sector and the car manufacturers are responding to the technical challenge posed.

Costs & Benefits

Generic categories of costs and benefits associated with this measure are listed as follows:

Costs:

Cost of fitting technology to the vehicles in production, Costs of technology development

Benefits:

Reduced emission levels with all associated benefits

Evidence & Reference

  • Official EU Documentation on Euro standards:

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/transport/road.htm

  • EU Documentation on CO2 efficiency:

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/transport/co2/co2_home.htm

  • Supporting studies to develop the EU strategy on CO2 and cars:

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/transport/co2/co2_studies.htm

  • Details on individual Euro Standard Directives and dates of implementation:

http://www.dieselnet.com/standards/eu/hd.php

  • Implementation of Euro V and VI standards for light vehicles, including obligations on manufacturers:

http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/internal_market/single_market_for_goods/motor_vehicles/interactions_industry_policies/l28186_en.htm

  • Further information and links to Euro standards:

http://www.euractiv.com/en/transport/euro-5-emissions-standards-cars/article-133325

  • Cycle beating:

http://www.transportenvironment.org/docs/Bulletin/2006/2006-02_bulletin146_web.pdf

Modelling this Measure

Modelling this measure is currently achieved by examining the removal efficiency of a given standard for a given fuel type, and applying the revised (abated) emission factor to the activity going through that standard. This is conducted within modelling frameworks such as the GAINS model where vehicle types are disaggregated and euro standards applied to each, accordingly. This allows for individual analyses of emissions reductions by vehicle type and activity.


Site Entry Created by Policy Measures Admin on Aug 19, 2010

Reference This Source

Policymeasures.com (2017). Euro standards. Available:
www.policymeasures.com/measures/detail/euro-standards Last accessed: 26th September 2017

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