Low Ammonia Application

Type:
Technical Option | Generic Example
Theme:
Agriculture

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Summary

There are several techniques available to reduce the amount of NH3 emissions during and after application of manure to arable land or grassland. Methods include: immediate incorporation, injection of manure, slit injection, trailing shoe, and band spreading. All techniques involve the placement of manure in the soils as opposed to spreading it over the surface (broadcasting), and all fall under the category of low ammonia application. Furthermore there are various levels of efficiency depending on the specific type of application used.

Implementation

Medium to low efficient techniques include slit injection, trailing shoe, slurry dilution, and band spreading for liquid slurry and incorporation of solid manure by ploughing into the soil the day after application. Meanwhile, high efficient options include immediate incorporation by ploughing (within 4 hours after application), deep and shallow injection of liquid manure, and immediate incorporation by ploughing (within 12 hours after application) of solid manure. 

Impact

As touched on briefly above, the impact of low ammonia application methods on emissions vary considerably depending on the measure used and the type of waste/manure (i.e. solid vs. liquid). For solid waste (i.e. dairy cows, other cattle, pigs, poultry, and sheep) the removal efficiency for the low efficiency application is approximately 20%. Meanwhile for liquid manure (i.e. dairy cattle, other cattle, and pigs) the removal efficiency for the same low efficiency application is approximately 40%. The removal efficiency for high efficiency applications for solid waste and liquid manure is approximately 80%, however.

Modelling this Measure

Modelling this measure can be achieved through the use of the GAINS model. Essentially assumptions regarding the adoption and share of a given control are made by national experts. GAINS then combines these assumptions with national energy forecasts and abated emission factors (i.e. inclusive of the removal efficiencies of the given control) and provides resulting emissions estimates. This provides modelled effects of this measure as compared to the level of emissions if this measure was not in place.

Furthermore, as with other agricultural measures it is possible to measure the effects of this measure either on its own, or when combined with others (such as low nitrogen feed and animal house adaptation, for example).


Site Entry Created by Policy Measures Admin on Oct 18, 2010
Edited by J A Kelly

Reference This Source

Policymeasures.com (2018). Low Ammonia Application. Available:
www.policymeasures.com/measures/detail/low-ammonia-application Last accessed: 24th October 2018

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